Keywords Change this

Transformed, Bunkers, Abandoned, Concrete, Forgotten Masterpieces, Foma

Project timeline

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Location Change this

Spread out all over

Also known as Change this

Pillbox Bunkers, Concrete Mushrooms

Architect Change this


Article last edited by Bostjan on
March 18th, 2020

Bunkers in Albania Change this

1 of 8

Description Change this

The bunkers of Albania are a ubiquitous sight in the country, with an average of 5.7 bunkers for every square kilometre. The bunkers were built during the communist government of Enver Hoxha from the 1960s to the 1980s; by 1983 a total of 173,371 concrete bunkers had been constructed around the country according to papers released in 2014.

National Bunkerization

Hoxha's program of "bunkerization" (bunkerizimi) resulted in the construction of bunkers in every corner of the then People's Socialist Republic of Albania, ranging from mountain passes to city streets. They were never used for their intended purpose during the years that Hoxha governed. The cost of constructing them was a drain on Albania's resources, diverting them away from more pressing needs, such as dealing with the country's housing shortage and poor roads.


The bunkers were abandoned following the collapse of communism in 1990. Most are now derelict, though some have been reused for a variety of purposes including residential accommodation, cafés, storehouses, and shelters for animals or the homeless. A few briefly saw use in the Balkan conflicts of the 1990s.


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