Raul Lino da Silva, better known as Raul Lino (Lisbon, 21 November 1879 – 13 July 1974) was a Portuguese architect, designer, architectural theorist, and writer. Lino's architectural theses and studies revolved around the theory of the Portuguese house, an idealized concept of Portuguese residential architecture, planning, and lifestyle. He was born in Lisbon, and had the opportunity to study abroad, in England and Germany, where he worked in the atelier of Albrecht Haupt. In Portugal Raul Lino dedicated an important part of his studies to the traditional Portuguese architecture and cities. His researches are reflected in his famous publications: A Nossa Casa (1918), A Casa Portuguesa (1929), Casa Portuguesa (1933) and L'Evolution de l'Architecture Domestique au Portugal (1937).
Raul Lino left the country early, for England first, in 1890, where he completed his first studies at a college near Windsor, and later to Germany to learn the language and study architecture. Raul Lino met the historian and architect Albrecht Haupt (1852-1932), in whose studio in Hanover he worked until he returned to Portugal. This coexistence proved to be remarkable in his thinking and in the definition of some of the principles of his architectural production. With Haupt, a specialist of Portuguese Renaissance architecture, Lino absorbed a historicist and nationalist spirit of a classic nature and, simultaneously, discovered a Portugal that he did not know. Another influence, revealed by himself, was the writer A. D. Thoreau, whose book Walden or life in the woods exalts the values of meditative life in harmony and communion with nature, accompanied him throughout his life. Music was also an influence as well as the trips Lino made: first through the country in the company of his friend the painter Roque Gameiro, then, in 1902, through Morocco.
The Quinta da Comenda, in Setúbal, was built by Lino for the Count of Armand in 1903. After returning to Portugal and finishing his studies in architecture, Lino began to work in his father's construction materials business, in 1897. During this time, Lino began his travels across Portugal and his studies of the regionalisms in architecture and style, paying particular note initially to the Alentejo region.
Brazil, Mozambique and Italy
Later, Raul Lino visited Brazil, Mozambique and Italy. The most productive and creative period of his architectural production was between 1900 and 1920, when he projected some of his most emblematic works such as the so-called “Moroccan houses” between 1901 and 1903 - the Montsalvat House for the pianist Alexandre Rey Colaço, Santa Maria House for his friend Jorge O'Neill, Silva Gomes House and Tanger Villa - Patudos House (Alpiarça, 1904), Comenda House (Outão, 1909), Cipreste House, which he designed for his home in Sintra (1913). After 1920 he designed other two important houses: the Penedos House in Sintra (1920) and the White House at Azenhas do mar (1920). Although Raul Lino is best known for his single family homes he also is the author of other types of building, as stores - the “Gardénia Store” at Chiado (1917) and the “Socks Store” at Rossio (1931) – the cine theater Tivoli (1918) in Lisbon, sanatoriums (Guarda and Portalegre) and even the Lisbon garden zoo. In 1940, Raul Lino was one of the architects of the Exhibition of the Portuguese World (Belém), author of the Brazilian Pavilion.
Back to Portugal, he designed and built more than 700 projects. Many were in the Mediterranean Revival and Soft Portuguese styles.The cities of Cascais and Sintra, along the Portuguese Riviera, boast the largest concentration of Lino's constructions out of anywhere. Lino played an active part in the cosmopolitanization of Cascais as a summer resort for the wealthy and notable and in the continuation of Sintra as a historicist, romanticist haven.
He was an architect who published prolifically, and became known for the Portuguese House campaign which caused much controversy and reached his peak in the retrospective exhibition that took place in the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in 1970. He is less known for the quality of his transversal synthesis between urbanism, architecture, decorative arts. He also wrote many books and texts about the theory of the architecture of the Portuguese house, such as A Casa Portuguesa - The Portuguese House (1929), Casas Portuguesas - Portuguese Houses (1933) and L'Evolution de l'Architecture Domestique au Portugal - The Evolution of Domestic Architecture in Portugal (1937).
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