Juan O’Gorman was a Mexican architect and muralist, known for his mosaic designs that adorned the facades of buildings. O’Gorman was influenced by drawing and composition through his father, Cecil Crawford O’Gorman, an Irish painter who settled in Mexico. Despite this influence, he chose to focus on architecture early in his career. After graduating in 1927 from the school of architecture of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City, O’Gorman began designing spare, rectilinear houses and buildings in the style of the Functionalist architect Le Corbusier. Included among these designs were, in 1928, the house and studio of the muralist Diego Rivera, a close associate.
O’Gorman was the most Modernist architects in Mexico. He called his social and functionalist architecture "the engineering of buildings" where he always created with the principles of minimum cost and maximum efficiency. This resulted in his architecture of sparsity where he combined cubic volumes with exposed concrete slabs and columns, brick walls painted in cheap and popular colours, large windows openings and inexpensive panes. His first work began in San Angel, exclusive part of Mexico City, where he build a Mexico's first modernistic house for his father. His neighbours demanded that his architecture degree should be revoked. An important early commission was for a house and studio for painters Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, built in 1931-32, with its symbolic bridge.
Period of Painting
O’Gorman worked as chief draftsman for Carlos Santacilia and other architects in Mexico City until 1932, at which time he became head of the Department of Building Construction for Mexico City and professor of architecture at the National Polytechnic Institute. He founded a study group for workers’ housing and was responsible for the Functionalist design and construction of about 30 schools. In the mid-1930s O’Gorman began to focus on painting, typically creating historical and nationalistic narratives in both easel paintings and murals. His major works in Mexico City included murals at the Mexico City airport (1937–38), which were removed in 1939 because of their anticlerical and antifascist character.
Back to Architecture
O’Gorman returned to architecture in the 1950s, adopting a more organic approach. The most elaborate example of his work is the exterior of the Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (Central Library UNAM), which he planned and built in the early 1950s. The windowless library featured a tower containing book stacks; the tower was covered with natural-stone mosaics, which symbolically depicted a history of Mexican culture. He also created notable mosaics for the Secretariat of Communications and Public Works (1952) and the Posada de la Misión Hotel in Taxco (1955–56).
In 1943 Diego Rivera convinced him to help him build the Anahuacalli, a studio-house-museum for his huge pre-Columbian art collection. With this brutal stone mass Rivera wanted to show the truly Mexican architecture was possible.
The Cave House
O’Gorman’s own house outside Mexico City (1953–56, demolished 1969) was considered his most extraordinary work. It was in part a natural cave and was designed to harmonize with the lava formations of the landscape. Decorated with mosaic symbols and images from Aztec mythology, it marked his eventual rejection of Functionalism in favour of an approach that united modern structural designs with indigenous Mexican decorative motifs.
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